The investigation of the meaning of words, is the beginning of education. ~ Antisthenes
Saturnus. Declensions: Saturnus (nom sg), Saturni (gen sg), Saturno (dat sg), Saturnum (acc sg), Saturnō (dat sg).
Iupiter. Declensions: Iupiter (nom sg), Iovis (gen sg), Iovi (dat sg), Iovem (acc sg), Iove (abl sg).
Mars. Declensions: Mars (nom sg), Martis (gen sg), Marti (dat sg), Martem (acc sg), Marte (abl sg).
Venus. Declensions: Venus (nom sg), Veneris (gen sg), Veneri (dat sg), Venerem (acc sg), Venere (abl sg).
Mercurius. Declensions: Mercurius (nom sg), Mercurii (gen sg), Mercurio (dat sg), Mercurium (acc sg), Mercuriō (dat sg).
Luna. Declensions: Luna (nom sg), Lunae (gen sg), Lunae (dat sg), Lunam (acc sg), Lunā (abl sg).
Ante nativitatem = before the nativity. It is usually used with reference to the syzygy, the prenatal lunation: the last conjunction of the luminaries before the birth (conjunctional) or the last opposition of the luminaries before the birth (preventional).
Ascendēns = ascending, rising [participle]. Astrologically: ascendant. You will often find it declined like ‘ascendentis (gen sg).
Dominus = lord [of a house], master [of a house], ruler [of a house].
Dominōs [acc pl] Triplicitatis, Lords of the Triplicity.
Dominus Anni = Lord of the Year.
Diurnus = of the day [sect], diurnal (adjective).
Diurnus is masculine form. Diurna is feminine and Diurnum neuter.
Esse = condition, state.
Nativitas = nativity, birth (noun, third declension). Astrologically: birth chart, natal chart. You will often find it in genitive form ‘nativitatis’ of nativity.
Nocturnus = of the night [sect], belonging to the night, nocturnal.
Nocturna is feminine form and Nocturnum is neuter form (adjective).
Signum = sign [noun, second declension]
If some other source is not cited, all lexical entries are taken from Liddell-Scott Greek Lexicon.
αἰσχρός (aischros) = causing shame, dishonor.
ἀκολασία (akolasia) = licentiousness, intemperance.
ἀπάθεια (apatheia) – impassibility, insensibility, apathy, freedom from emotions, insensibility to. From ‘a’ with meaning ‘without, and ‘pathos’ with meaning ‘suffering’ or ‘passion’, is a Stoic term for representation of the state in which a sage should be found. It is translated also as ‘equanimity’. Stoics thought that one should avoid reacting passionately on the events and pertains state of perfect tranquility, equally on good and bad things befalling us.
ἀφροσύνη (aphrosunē) = folly, thoughtlessness.
ἀνδρεῖος (andreios) = courageous, manly, masculine, strong, vigorous.
ἀρετή (aretē) = goodness, excellence, virtue, good deeds, good nature, kindness.
ἀταραξία (ataraksia) = calmness, tranquility, impassiveness. This term was highly used by Epicurus and Epicureans as a representative of the state of tranquility from all the worries and distresses of the outer and inner world.
δειλία (deilia) = cowardice, timidity.
δικαιοσύνη (dikaiosunē) = righteousness, justice, fulfillment of the law.
ἔκκλῖσις [ekklisis] – turning out of one’s course, deflexion. In Stoic philosophy, things toward which we have aversion.
ἐγκράτεια (enkrateia) = self-control, mastery over.
ἐπαίνεσις (epainesis) = praise. Used in Aristotle’s ethical writings to note which things are praiseworthy.
ἐπιθῡμητικός (epithumētikos) = desiring, coveting, lusting after, that part of the soul which is the seat of the desires and affections.
εὐδαιμονία (eudaimonia) = prosperity, good fortune, full happiness. In Stoic philosophy it is often used as a representation of happiness. Human flourishing was proposed translation from some proponents of Stoic thought today. Eu = good and Daimon = spirit, is the etymology of this word. This word was also used in Aristotle’s ethical writings, alongside aretē (virtue) and phronesis (prudence or practical wisdom).
ὀργιλότης (orgilotēs) = irascibility.
καλός (kalos) = beautiful, of a fine quality, fine things. Used in Aristotle’s ethical writings, often with dual ‘καλά’.
κακία (kakia) = badness, cowardice, faint-heartedness, moral badness, vice.
λογιστικός (logistikos) = reasoning faculty.
μεγαλοψυχία (megalopsuchia) = greatness of soul, high-mindedness, lordliness.
ὄρεξις [orexis] – desire, longing, yearning after. In Stoic philosophy one of the three topoi or fields of study and exercise of the philosopher.
ὁρμάω (hormaō) – set in motion, urge on, rush headlong at. In Stoic philosophy it is associated with the impulses [hormas] to act and not to act [aphormas]
πραότης (praotēs) = mindness, gentleness.
προαίρεσις (proairesis but often times transliterated as prohairesis) = volition, will, choice, intention, moral choice, inclination, deliberate course of action. It is one of the main concepts in Epictetus’ moral philosophy, that man is capable of choosing how to react on the external influences and free to judge them as good or bad. In other words, they are neither good nor bad, but our judgment makes them so. This principle of right thinking about things and the power of choice to judge the externals is the principle of prohairesis, to choose how to react on the impressions.
σοφός (sophos) = skilled in any handicraft or art, clever, prudent, learned, wise. It is Stoic term for what we call today Sage.
σώφρων (sōphrōn) = sound mind, discreet, prudent, reasonable, having control over the sensual desires, temperate, self-controlled, chaste, moderate.
συγκατάθεσις (sunkatathesis) – assent, approval, affirmation. In Stoic philosophy, this is one of the three topoi or fields of study, practical exercises in practicing the moral character (prohairesis) and excellence (aretē) for living happy life (eudaimonia). Sunkatathesis is practical application of proper judgment upon the impressions (phantasia) by assenting to the things that our under own control and not lamenting upon the things that are outside our own control.
θυμοειδής (thumoeidēs) = high-spirited.
ὑπόληψις [hupolēpsis] = harsh-judgment, prejudice, suspicion. In Stoic philosophy, related to the value-judgment upon the impressions (phantasia) we receive.
φαντᾰσία (phantasia) = appearance, image, imagination. ‘Phantasiai’ was often used as ‘impressions’ and in Stoic thought for representing the equanimity in regard to the impressions and reactions upon them.
φρόνησις (phronesis) = purpose, intention, judgment, thought; in Aristotle’s writings used as ‘practical wisdom’ translated in Latin as ‘prudence’. Valens uses this word in description of the nature of Sun in the beginning of Anthology.
ψεκτός (psektos) = blameworthy.
ψῡχή (psuchē) = life, spirit, soul, consciousness, the conscious self, personality, the self, psyche.
You can download a PDF form from the web site of Benjamin N. Dykes, PhD here.
If some other source is not cited, all lexical entries are taken from Liddell-Scott Greek Lexicon.
Names of the 12 Signs
Names of the 7 Stars
αἴσθησις (aisthēsis) = perception from the senses (hearing, seeing, smelling); perception from the intellect; ability to perceive [discernment]; to understand; to apprehend by senses; take notice of; cognitions (noun sg nom fem 3rd decl.)
αἴσθομαι (aisthomai) = I perceive, apprehend, notice (verb).
Example in Vettius Valens Ch. 1 speaking of the nature of Sun: ψυχικῆς αἰσθήσεως ὄργανον (psuchikēs aisthēseōs ogranon, organ of perception of the soul). ‘Aisthēseos’ is genitive singular form of noun ‘aisthēsis’.
ἀκτῑνοβολέω (aktinoboleō) = emit rays, aspect from the left.
Astrological translation: ‘hurling with a way’. Schmidt: ‘striking with a ray’.
Hurling a ray backwards in the zodiacal order. Planet in Aries hurls a ray to a planet in Capricorn, or to use Schmidt’s convention, planet in Aries is striking with a ray a planet positioned in Capricorn. It is not yet clear whether the configuration made by the two planet should be by degree or the whole-sign aspects are also taken in account.
ἀναβῐβάζω (anabibazdō) =makes to go up.
Astrologically: the ascendning node (north node), ὁ ἀναβιβάζων σύνδεσμος (ho anabibazdō sundesmos), but in Valens it is often times used as anabibazdon translated as ‘ascending [node] with ‘node’ in parenthesis.
ἀπόστροφος (apostrophos) = turned away from, averted.
Astrologically: aversion, lack of aspect, the sign on the both sides next to the one examined and those opposite these two.
ἀχρημάτιστος [achrēmatistos] = non-profitable, bringing no advantage. Astrologically referring to the images/signs that are not operative, or not conducive for business. According to Hermes/Timaeus, these images are all that do not aspect the ascendant + the 3rd image. So, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 8th and 12th. According to the King Nechepsō: only the cadent signs. Schmidt’s translation of this word is ‘being at leisure’.
βίαιοθανάτος (biaiothanatos) – violent death.
γένεσις (genesis) = origin, source, beginning, generation, coming into being, becoming (noun sg f 3rd decl.)
Astrologically: natal chart, birth chart, geniture, nativity.
δεσπότης (despotēs) = master, lord, owner, the master of the house, despot, absolute ruler (noun sg masc nom). Astrologically: dominant planet, master.
δεσποτεία (despoteia) = the power of the master (noun sg fem)
Astrologically: mastership, ownership [of a place/house].
δέκτωρ (dektōr)= one who takes upon himself or on his own hand.
Astrologically: Steward, oikodektōr, stewart of the house (Schmidt).
δορῠφορία (doruphoria) = to act as a guard, body-guard, spear-bearer,
δορῠφορέω (doruphoreō) = attent as boddy-guard, to be guarded (verb).
ἐναλλᾰγή [enallagē] = interchange, variation. It is used in the treatise of Abū Ma’shar On Solar Revolutions survived in Greek [in translation from Arabic] as to represent the Revolution or what we would call today [Solar] Return. In the Latin text is called ‘Revolutio‘.
επιδυναμεως [epidunameōs] = being in power, possessing a power.
επικαιρος [epikairos] = being fit for, being in fit time. Astrologically: being in important place in the nativity [Schmidt]. According to Serapio, these important places are: a) being on a pivot, b) making an appearance, c) being upon a lot, d) being in a concourse with the Sun.
ἐπίκεντρος [epikentros] = occupying a cardinal point (adj sg nom)
ἐπικεντρόομαι [epikentroomai] = occupy a cardinal point (verb 1st sg pres ind)
επικληρος [epiklēros] = being upon a lot. Epi is prefix meaning ‘on, upon’ and klēros is a noun meaning a ‘lot’.
ἐπίφᾶσις [epiphasis] = becoming visible, making an appearance.
Ισχυοντες [ischuontes] = being strong.
κατοπτεύω [katopteuō] = spy out, observe closely, reconnoiter, explore. Astrologically this term is used as an aspect [possibly close degree aspect] that is cast toward some planet. It is used by Porphyry in his definition of Doryphory or Spear-Bearing for the planet that is spear-bearing for another. Schmidt translated this term as ‘to act as a lookout’. It is also used by Antiochus and Hephaistio for the planet that is spear-bearing or is casting a ray in the degree preceding (or following, Antiochus) the other planet.
κλῆρος (klēros) = allotment, that which is assigned by lot, piece of land, farm, estate.
κλῆρος θανάτου (klēros thanatou) = Lot of Death, as found in Critodemus is taken by day and night by taking the distance from natal Moon to the 8th Place and casting that amount of distance from the ascendant. Algorithmically: (Asc + 8th Place – Moon)
κλῆρος ἀναιρέτου (klēros anairetou) = Lot of Destroyer, as found in Critodemus is taken by day by taking the distance from the Lord of the Ascendant to the Moon and casting that amount of distance from Ascendant. Algorithmically: (Asc + Moon – Lord of Ascendant, reverse by night).
κύριος (kurios) = having power or authority over (noun sg masc nom). Astrologically: ruler.
νόος [noos], νόυς [in Attic dialect] = mind, perception, sense, reason, intellect, the act of mind [noun sg m nom]
Valens says that Sun represents the mind and the organ of perception of the Soul.
οἰκοδεσπότης (oikodespotēs) = master or steward of a house (noun sg masc).
Astrologically: ruler, ruler of a house or topical place, from ‘oiko’ house and ‘despotēs’ ruler: ruler of a house.
οἰκοδεσποτεία (oikodespoteia) = planetary predominance (noun sg fem). Astrologically: rulership.
οἰκοδεσποτέω (oikodespoteō) = to be master of a house or head of a family (verb 1st sg pres ind act).
πανσέληνος (panselēnos) = full Moon.
Προαναφέρω (proanapherō) = to rise before [a star].
προγενομένης (progenomenēs) = prenatal.
συνοικοδεσπότης (sunoikodespotēs) joint lord of a house (of a planet).
σύνοικος (sunoikos) = dwelling in the same house with, fellow-inhabitant, associated with, tied to.
sunoiko-despotēs meaning practically ‘joined in rulership’, or joined to the ruler. The prefix ‘sun’ in Ancient Greek was often used for the notion of joining.
σημαίνω (sēmainō) = Indicate, to show by sign, to point out, give signs, to make a signal, signify, declare, to mark out (verb).
In Hellenistic astrology text, is most often translated as ‘to signify’. It is often used in the original text in 3rd person sg form ‘sēmainei’ in a sense of ‘Sun [it] signifies’.
σελήνη (Selēnē) – Moon.
σύνδεσμος (sundesmos) = that which binds together, bond of union.
ὕψωμα [hupsōma] = exaltation, elevation.
χρημᾰτίζω [chrēmatizō] = “conducive to business”. Astrologically, used by Hellenistic authors to denote the signs/images that are ‘operative’ or where planets can conduct their business. This is a denominative verb, such verbs usually denote action. It is formed by the root noun chrēma and the suffix izō (Schmidt, Definitions & Foundations).
Other forms: χρημᾰτιστικός [chrēmatistikos], χρηματιστος [chrēmatistos], χρηματιζον [chrēmatizon] – Serapio uses this form and Schmidt translated it as ‘busy about their business’. Serapio adds that only planets that are on pivots, upon lots, making an appearance or those that are trigonal to Sun are ‘busy about their business’.
According to Hermes/Timaeus, these images are: all the Pivots, 9th, 5th, and 11th. According to King Nechepsō: the pivots and the post-ascending images (succedent signs).